Outcome Chart - Ontario - Philosophy: The Big Questions 11 HZB3M

Philosophical Skills

Overall Expectations

Philosophical Reasoning: demonstrate an understanding of terms, methods, and fallacies associated with philosophical reasoning;
Developing Philosophical Responses: use philosophical reasoning and critical thinking skills to formulate responses to big questions of philosophy and to arguments encountered in everyday life.

Specific Expectations

Students will:

  • describe the parts of an argument (e.g., premise, evidence, conclusion), and explain how a philosophical argument differs from other communications
  • correctly use terminology related to logic and philosophical argumentation (e.g., logical consistency, contradiction, deduction, induction, proposition, truth value, inference, validity; terms related to forms of arguments, types of syllogisms, patterns of reasoning)
  • identify some common fallacies in reasoning (e.g., fallacies related to relevance, such as an appeal to pity or emotion and an appeal to authority; fallacies related to ambiguity, such as equivocation and fallacies of composition and division; fallacies related to presumption, such as begging the question and using a straw man), and identify examples of some of these fallacies in arguments encountered in everyday life (e.g., in newspaper articles and editorials, advertising, formal debates, informal discussions)
  • apply philosophical reasoning and critical-thinking skills to analyse arguments encountered in everyday life (e.g., in letters to the editor, newspaper editorials, news reports, formal debates, face-to-face or online discussions among peers) and to develop a response to them

Lessons that meet Grade 11 expectations

Research and Inquiry Skills

Overall Expectations
Exploring: explore topics related to philosophical questions and/or issues, and formulate questions to guide their research

Investigating: create research plans, and locate and select information relevant to their chosen topics, using appropriate social science research and inquiry methods

Processing Information: assess, record, analyse, and synthesize information gathered through research and inquiry

Communicating and Reflecting: communicate the results of their research and inquiry clearly and effectively, and reflect on and evaluate their research, inquiry, and communication skills.
Specific Expectations
Students will:

explore a variety of topics related to philosophical questions and/or issues (e.g., Does a meaningful life require that there be a divine plan? Do people living in the present have a moral obligation to redress the wrongs done by their ancestors – for example, against Aboriginal peoples? Is science the best way to gain knowledge? Can a work of art be beautiful even if it portrays evil or ugly things? Can a society that is divided between the very rich and the very poor be just?) to identify topics for research and inquiry

identify key concepts (e.g., through discussion, brainstorming, use of visual organizers) related to their selected topics

formulate effective questions to guide their research and inquiry

create appropriate research plans to investigate their selected topics (e.g., outline purpose and method; identify sources of information), ensuring that their plans follow guidelines for ethical research

locate and select information relevant to their investigations from a variety of primary sources

based on preliminary research, for each investigation formulate a hypothesis, thesis statement, or research question, and use it to focus their research

assess various aspects of information gathered from primary and secondary sources (e.g., accuracy, relevance, reliability, inherent values and bias, voice)

analyse and interpret research information

synthesize findings and formulate conclusions

demonstrate academic honesty by documenting the sources of all information generated through research

demonstrate an understanding of the general research process by reflecting on and evaluating their own research, inquiry, and communication skills

Lessons that meet Secondary expectations