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Fortunately, many antivirus programs, as well as comprehensive security software, exist to prevent the effects of software threats. A comprehensive security suite will have specific anti-spyware and dedicated adware removal software and provides general protection from viruses. Most vendors also issue patches that close down vulnerabilities exploited by email viruses.
Spam refers to unsolicited bulk messages being sent through email, instant messaging or other digital communication tools. It is generally used by advertisers because there are no operating costs beyond that of managing their mailing lists. It could also take place in chat rooms, in blogs and more recently within voice over internet conversation (such as Skype). Beyond being a simple nuisance, spam can also be used to collect sensitive information from users and has also been used to spread viruses and other malware.
Identity spoofing is a fairly common problem on social networks.  Teens need to know how to make strong passwords and have to be taught not to share their passwords with others.Social networks, and other online environments that encourage users to share information about themselves, can expose teens to identity theft.
Preschoolers (2-5 years)
Preschoolers are one of the fastest-growing groups of computer users, particularly with the arrival of touch-screen devices such as the iPad and iPhone. Recent American research has found that half of five-year-olds go online every day, along with a quarter of three-year-olds.  In addition, small children are also the fastest-growing group of video game players. 
I have a special secret,
Whenever I'm online -
I don't share with others
The things that are just mine.
My e-mail and my home address,
My phone number and name -
These are just for me to know,
In chat rooms or in games.
Instead, I use my nonsense name -
It's my online identity!
When people ask me who I am,
I introduce my "cyber-me."
And when I want to surf the Web,
for places that are cool,
I get some help from mom or dad,
or teachers from my school.
Level: Grades 7 and 8
Duration: One hour per activity
Author: Emmanuelle Erny-Newton, Media Education Specialist, MediaSmarts
This lesson allows students to explore the concept of civic participation in the creation of Canadian laws through a study of the consultation process found in the Canada Gazette. Students will create their own School Gazette by proposing and discussing rules against cyberbullying at school.
Cyberbullying can be addressed under civil law or criminal law, based on the situation.
Civil law: This is the branch of law that deals with property rights, personal dignity and freedom from injury. Under civil law, there are three approaches to cyberbullying:
Here are some statistics which illustrate the scale of the problem: roughly a quarter of young people report having been targets of cyberbullying.  However, the risk is not equal for all students. Many of the things that make youth targets of offline bullying – poverty , disability , being a member of a visible minority group  and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) status  – increase the odds of being a target of cyberbullying as well.