Quebec Competencies Chart - You've Gotta Have a Gimmick!: A Lesson in Junk Food Advertising

Author: MediaSmarts
Level: Secondary Cycle One
Subject Area: English Language Arts, Moral Education, Physical Education and Health
Lesson Link: You’ve Gotta Have a Gimmick!: A Lesson in Junk Food Advertising

Description: This lesson familiarizes students with the marketing techniques used in television and magazine snack food ads.

Cross-curricular Competencies

Broad Areas of Learning

  • To use information
  • To exercise critical judgement
  • To be creative
  • To adopt effective work methods
  • To use information and communications technologies for learning purposes
  • To work with others
  • To communicate appropriately
  • Media Literacy
  • Environmental Awareness and Consumer Rights

This lesson satisfies the following English Language Arts Competencies from the Quebec Education Program:

Competency One: Uses language/talk to communicate and learn

Production Process:

  • Uses strategies to generate, clarify and expand ideas
  • Explores a structure that will help the audience to receive the intended meaning:
    • Selects an organizational structure suitable to function of text
    • If necessary, combines one or more text structures to present more complex issues or to create specific effects
  • Examines the relationship between context, producer of text and familiar, intended audience to identify potential problems in communication:
    • Interprets audience’s expectations to determine which features are most important
    • Analyzes the characteristics of the audience
    • Adopts a stance to topic and audience
    • Chooses a level of language or register most suitable to the context
  • Uses linguistic structures and features to communicate her/his meaning and to influence the audience in the manner intended:
    • Prepares several drafts, if the context warrants it, and rehearses with peers as a simulated audience
    • Uses language with the degree of precision and semantic and syntactic awareness required by the context
    • Selects relevant devices such as emotional or rational appeals to influence the audience
    • Experiments with intonation patterns, pitch and volume for desired effects
    • Uses stylistic features and devices such as repetition, parody, exaggeration and imagery for emphasis, interest and special effect, and to create a personal style
    • Selects the usage conventions suitable both to the text type and to the expectations of the audience
  • Presents the spoken text to audience

Classroom Drama

  • Uses drama to explore complex problems and to extend the range of learning contexts
  • Uses physical movement and nonverbal language such as sounds, images, gestures, facial expressions
  • Experiments with register and dialect in specific situations

Social Practices of Classroom and Community

  • Examines the discourse used to present information in selected spoken, written and media texts

Competency Two: Represents his/her literacy in various media

Production Process

Preproduction

  • Negotiates text type to be produced– Manipulates visual elements to build skills for later production activities
  • Immerses self in the text type to be produced in order to deconstruct some of its textual features, codes and conventions:
    • Analyzes samples of text type
    • Carries out a content analysis or inquiry into some aspect of media text
  • Rehearses production process:
    • Creates criteria for guiding production, e.g. features of an effective poster or advertisement
    • Discusses the purpose, context, target audience and their needs
    • Decides about medium, mode and code
    • Writes script, storyboard or rough draft

Production

  • Communicates information, experiences, points of view and personal responses to a familiar audience
  • Inter-relates the characteristics of media text in a specific context drawing on:
    • Specific communication strategies and resources
    • Images, symbols, signs, logos and/or words to communicate meaning(s)/message(s)
    • Knowledge of structures and features of other media texts brought into own productions
  • Reviews and edits text to focus on meaning(s)/message(s)

Postproduction

  • Presents text to intended audience

Information and Communications Technologies (ICT)

  • Uses different available technologies in order to construct own texts
  • Uses mixed media and multimedia resources to locate information, do research and communicate with others

Text, Audience, Producer

Textual Features, Codes and Conventions

  • Identifies and deconstructs codes:
    • Captions, credits and titles
    • Dialogue and voiceovers
    • Lighting and sound
    • Camera language
    • Symbolic
    • Narrative
    • Sequencing
    • Colour
  • Interprets media texts:
    • Draws on knowledge of production process and codes and conventions of texts produced
    • Explores the codes that construct media texts, e.g. headlines, captions and photographs in newspapers
    • Constructs message(s) and meaning(s) using familiar codes from media texts
    • Identifies functions of media discourse: to entertain, to persuade, to promote, to inform
    • Makes connection(s) between images, signs, symbols, pictures and printed text and meaning
    • Confirms, by talking with peers and teacher, that a media text can contain more than one message
    • Identifies and discusses some of the ways in which pictures, illustrations, symbols and images enhance the message
    • Explores the use of “formulas”

Audience and Producer

  • Explores self as individual member of audience (use, personal biases, prior experiences) and as part of a larger target audience
  • Compares:
    • Own values with those presented in media texts
    • Own responses, reactions and consumption of media texts with those of peers and other age groups
  • Examines how media target specific audiences:
    • Explores how the structures and features of texts shape meaning for an audience
    • Explains how own productions are adapted to interests of familiar audience chosen
  • Discusses characteristics of producer:
    • Explores where, when, why, by and for whom texts are produced
    • Identifies connections made by producers between media texts, e.g. references to Disney in fast-food commercials
    • Identifies aspects of media industry related to marketing and promotion
    • Examines the impact of marketing on common social concepts such as childhood

Competency Three: Reads and listens to written, spoken and media texts

Reader’s Stance: Constructing a Reading of a Text

  • Focuses on the world of the text to construct an aesthetic reading of text
  • Focuses on making sense of information in a text to construct an efferent reading, e.g. reads print and visual information with the intention of remembering details/examples and/or of following instructions, rereads to verify meaning(s) s/he is making, relates to personal experience and prior knowledge
  • Focuses on the relationship between own world and world of the text to construct an interpretive reading, e.g. elaborates on story world or information in text, connects literature or nonfiction to life experience(s), recognizes familiar textual features, codes and conventions that confirm own meaning(s)/message(s)

Reading Strategies: Text Grammars (Structures, Features, Codes and Conventions)

  • Constructs meaning(s)/message(s) by reinvesting her/his knowledge of the text as social construct, i.e. language-in-use:
    • Draws on cues in familiar structures, features, codes and conventions to make sense of texts
    • Identifies connotation and denotation of words, images and their referents

Reader, Text, Context: Interpreting Texts

  • Interprets the text for a familiar audience by drawing associations between own world of personal experiences and knowledge and the world of the text by considering:
    • Own characteristics as a reader and the constructed world of a text, e.g. comparison of own values and experiences with those presented in the text; issues, ideas or questions the text raises for her/him; experience with similar texts; attitudes towards subject/topic/character; personal interests
    • Features, codes and conventions of known text types/genres,
  • With guidance, examines text in its literary and/or socio-cultural context:
    • Identifies features, codes and conventions used to achieve a recognized social purpose and/or function and/or effect and impact on self as reader, e.g. in a popular television commercial, in a humorous text
    • Connects, in a trial-and-error fashion, her/his understanding of some characteristics of narrator/writer/producer to what s/he notices about the view of the world presented in the text, e.g. reads “between the lines” to locate apparent values/beliefs of a character/narrator in a story, understands the intent of a fast food ad, sees that an opinion excludes certain points of view
  • Communicates interpretation(s) of a text in an individual voice, referring to prior experience, own reading profile and understanding of texts as social constructs:
    • Follows a process to compose, i.e. writes or produces own interpretation(s) of a text
    • Expresses own interpretation(s) with clarity, openness and confidence

Other subject-specific programs

Ethics and Religious Culture

Reflects on ethical questions

Analyzes a situation from an ethical point of view

  • Describes a situation and puts it into context
  • Formulates a related ethical question
  • Compares points of view
  • Explains tensions or conflicting values
  • Compares the situation with similar situations
  • Compares his/her analysis of the situation with that of his/her classmates

Examines a variety of cultural, moral, religious, scientific or social references

  • Finds the main references present in different points of view
  • Looks for the role and the meaning of these references
  • Considers other references
  • Compares the meaning of the main references in different contexts

Evaluates options or possible actions

  • Suggests options or possible actions
  • Studies the effects of these options or actions on oneself, others or the situation
  • Chooses options or actions that foster community life
  • Reflects on the factors that influenced these choices

Physical Education and Health

The Cycle One program states:

The messages conveyed by the media can have major repercussions on the behaviour of adolescents. Therefore, it is important that students be encouraged to maintain a critical distance with regard to the media. For example, during a big sports event, certain networks show violent images involving the athletes. Reports on doping, which some athletes resort to, raise ethical questions about respecting rules and about honesty and fair play. Advertising uses an infinite amount of female body images to demonstrate the effects of products that enable you to obtain the perfect body with no physical effort. This sometimes contradictory information cannot help but challenge students, who must exercise critical judgment when they situate this information in relation to the various contexts in which they develop the subject-specific competencies.

The broad area of learning Media Literacy is thus part of this program.